Like other conditions currently classified as an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Asperger's Syndrome is strongly gender biased, with males currently comprising approximately 75 percent of diagnoses. However, this figure may not be completely accurate, as girls are arguably more exposed to social situations and thus have more of a chance to learn to imitate the non-autistics and behave "normally".

Physically, aspergians are no different from non-autistics. The difference lies in the social life. Non-autistics — called neurotypicals, or NTs, by people on the autistic spectrum who reject the word "normal" — possess a comparatively sophisticated sense of other people's mental states. Most people are able to gather a whole host of information about other people's cognitive and emotional states based on clues gleaned from the environment and the other person's body language. Persons with autism are relatively deficient in this ability, and the individual with Asperger's can be every bit as "mind-blind" as the person with profound classical autism. For those who are severely affected by "mind-blindness", they may, at best, see a smile but not know what it means (perhaps overwhelmed with the possibilities -- is it an understanding, a condescending, or a malicious smile?) and at worst they will not even see the smile, frown, smirk, or any other nuance of interpersonal communication. They generally find it difficult or impossible to "read between the lines"; that is, figure out those things a person is implying but is not saying directly -- not because they can't imagine the answer, but because they are unable to choose among the possibilities. It is worth noting, however, that since it is a spectrum disorder, a few with Asperger's are nearly normal in their ability to read facial expressions and intentions of others. Those with Asperger's often have difficulty with eye contact. Many make very little eye contact, finding it overwhelming, while others have unmodulated, staring eye contact that can be off-putting to others.

Asperger's syndrome can involve an intense and obsessive level of focus on things of interest and is often characterized by special (and possibly peculiar) gifts; one person might be obsessed with 1950s professional wrestling, another with national anthems of African dictatorships, another with building models out of matchsticks. Particularly common interests are means of transport (for example trains), computers, and dinosaurs. These interests are often coupled with an unusually high capacity to retain and recall encyclopedic amounts of information about the favored subject.

In general, orderly things have appeal to individuals with Asperger's. When these special interests coincide with a materially or socially useful task, the individual with Asperger's can often lead a profitable life. The child obsessed with naval architecture may grow up to be an accomplished shipwright, for instance. In pursuit of these interests, the individual with Asperger's often manifests extremely sophisticated reason, an almost obsessive focus, and eidetic memory. Hans Asperger called his young patients "little professors", based on the fact that his thirteen-year-old patients had as comprehensive and nuanced an understanding of their field of interest as university professors.

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